Dencun Upgrade: Why this Ethereum upgrade is path defining

Ethereum Dencun upgrade
Concept image of Ethereum Dencun upgrade

The imminent Dencun upgrade is poised to redefine the Ethereum landscape through the introduction of “proto-danksharding,” an essential stepping stone towards addressing the prevailing scalability concerns that beleaguer layer-2 blockchain solutions. With an anticipated launch date of March 13, 2024, the upgrade is set to drastically decrease transaction costs and enhance the network’s operational capabilities. The central premise of proto-danksharding revolves around minimising data availability costs, cementing a foundation for the ambitious danksharding initiative projected to bolster Ethereum’s transaction throughput to over 100,000 transactions per second.

The significance of the Dencun upgrade extends beyond mere scalability enhancements; it represents a sophisticated amalgamation of nine pivotal Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs), each meticulously designed to target a unique facet of network functionality. These proposals represent intricately wrought cogs in the vast Ethereum machine, with EIPs such as EIP-4844 spearheading proto-danksharding and others meticulously fine-tuning security, efficiency, and stakeholder experience.

Ethereum Dencun Upgrade
concept image of ethereum dencun upgrade

This comprehensive upgrade is a testament to Ethereum’s unwavering commitment to incremental and strategic enhancements, promising to fortify its position in the Ethereum ecosystem, potentially influencing the ether price, and enhancing Ethereum’s allure to both developers and users within the Web3 realm.

Understanding Proto-Danksharding

Proto-danksharding, a term that may seem enigmatic to the uninitiated, is the cornerstone of the Dencun upgrade, which is set to revolutionise the Ethereum network by introducing several enhancements aimed at improving scalability and efficiency. The name comes from the two researchers who proposed the idea: Protolambda and Dankrad Feist. It introduces a simplified version of sharding, focusing on data bundling and transaction selection mechanisms.This initiative is encapsulated within Ethereum Improvement Proposal 4844 (EIP-4844), which plays a pivotal role in the upgrade’s framework. The following points elucidate the technical intricacies of proto-danksharding and its implications for the Ethereum ecosystem:

  • Ephemeral Data Blobs: Proto-danksharding introduces a new concept called ‘ephemeral data blobs’. These are large packets of data, up to approximately 125 kB in size, that are temporarily attached to Ethereum blocks. The key innovation here is the temporary nature of these blobs, which are designed to have a lifespan of roughly 18 days. After this period, the data is no longer retrievable from consensus clients, a strategic move to reduce long-term storage requirements and maintain a leaner, more sustainable network infrastructure. This approach addresses the critical challenge of scalability by allowing for a significant increase in block space without burdening nodes with perpetual data storage.
  • Two-Dimensional Fee Market: The implementation of proto-danksharding will unveil a new fee market specifically for blob data, known as data fees. This market operates separately from the conventional gas market and introduces a novel fee mechanism. Block builders will now navigate a two-dimensional fee landscape, contending with both a gas limit and a data limit when processing transactions. This dual fee structure is expected to precipitate a dramatic reduction in transaction fees for rollups, potentially by a factor of 100, making Ethereum transactions more economical, particularly for Layer 2 solutions.
  • Enhanced Security and Efficiency: EIP-4844 also brings to the table two new precompiles for optimistic and zk-rollups, which are integral to verifying blob data. These cryptographic tools are essential for maintaining the integrity and privacy of the data off-chain. Furthermore, the use of KZG commitments in proto-danksharding binds committers to the data without disclosing it, fortifying both the security and efficiency of the network. These advancements are not only pivotal for the immediate benefits they offer but also serve as a foundational step towards the full realization of Danksharding, which is anticipated to further amplify Ethereum’s scalability and reduce transaction costs significantly.

The technicalities of proto-danksharding, as outlined above, represent a sophisticated and calculated enhancement to the Ethereum network. By addressing the critical issues of scalability, storage, and transaction fees, proto-danksharding is poised to significantly bolster Ethereum’s position within the cryptocurrency space, attracting a wider array of developers and users. As the Ethereum community looks forward to the Dencun upgrade, there is a palpable sense of anticipation for the improvements it promises in terms of lower gas fees and an enriched user experience, marking a monumental stride towards resolving Ethereum’s scalability conundrums.

Ethereum’s Improvement Plan under Dencun Upgrade

1. EIP-7514: The Gatekeeper

Ethereum Improvement Proposal 7514 (EIP-7514), known as “The Gatekeeper,” serves as a critical component within the Dencun upgrade, meticulously designed to modulate the growth of Ethereum’s active validator set. The proposal is strategically positioned to enhance network efficiency and is expected to be a part of the Deneb upgrade, slated for Q4 of 2023. Here are the key aspects of EIP-7514:

  • Max Churn Limit: EIP-7514 establishes a maximum churn limit of 8 for validator activations. This measure is aimed at slowing down the growth of the validator set, thereby effectively managing its size and maintaining network performance.
  • Focused on Activations: The churn limit set by EIP-7514 applies exclusively to activations and not to exits. This means that while the limit for new validators entering the system is capped, the churn limit for exits will continue to vary with the number of active validators.
  • Staking Dynamics: By introducing a maximum threshold on validator additions within a certain timeframe, EIP-7514 addresses the potential issues of network congestion and the dilution of staking rewards. This proposal could influence the amount of ETH being staked, potentially making staking rewards more attractive and affecting the ether price over the long term.
  • Monetary Policy Impact: Indirectly, EIP-7514 affects Ethereum’s monetary policy by altering the growth rate of total ETH staked and the consensus layer rewards per block. The goal is to prevent the consensus layer from becoming bloated and to maintain an efficient blockchain ecosystem.
  • Community Consensus: The Ethereum community has expressed mixed reactions to EIP-7514. While some view it as a necessary step to control staking’s rapid growth, others believe it was introduced without ample consideration. This reflects the importance of community engagement in Ethereum’s governance model and the need for collaborative discourse in shaping the roadmap for the network’s future.

EIP-7514 is emblematic of Ethereum’s ongoing commitment to secure, efficient, and competitive blockchain solutions. It is a testament to the network’s adaptability and willingness to implement interim solutions while the community works towards establishing a more practical reward scheme for stakeholders, signifying potential shifts in Ethereum’s economic model. As a short-term measure, EIP-7514 underscores the need for careful planning and deliberation in anticipation of Ethereum’s evolution, ensuring the network remains at the forefront of the cryptocurrency and decentralized finance landscape.

2. EIP-1153: The Memory Magician

Ethereum Improvement Proposal 1153 (EIP-1153), coined as “The Memory Magician,” introduces the innovative concept of transient storage to the Ethereum network. This feature offers a temporary space for data that disappears after the transaction is completed, with the goal of enhancing smart contract efficiency and reducing gas costs. Here are the key aspects of EIP-1153 that demonstrate its potential impact on the Ethereum ecosystem:

  • Introduction to Transient Storage:
    • Transient storage is a new layer of data interaction within Ethereum’s virtual machine.
    • It operates through two new opcodes: TSTORE for setting values and TLOAD for retrieving values during the execution of a transaction.
    • These operations are significantly cheaper than traditional storage operations, with each costing approximately $100,, making them a cost-effective alternative for developers.
  • Cost Reduction and Enhanced Security:
    • EIP-1153 is poised to reduce the cost of re-entrancy guards by more than 90%, a significant advancement in smart contract security.
    • It enables ERC20 token approval within a single transaction without granting permanent access, enhancing the security measures of smart contracts.
    • The proposal facilitates safer and more economical implementation of callback functions, which are essential in complex smart contract interactions.
  • Implementation and Developer Adaptation:
    • Authored by Alexey Akhunov and Moody Salem in 2018, EIP-1153 reflects the Ethereum community’s long-term commitment to development and consideration.
    • With its anticipated implementation in the next Ethereum hard fork, the Cancun-Deneb (Dencun) update, EIP-1153 stands alongside EIP-4844 in the broader context of Ethereum’s scalability and efficiency improvements.
    • Solidity developers can look forward to the introduction of a transient modifier for utilizing transient storage, akin to existing modifiers such as storage, memory, and calldata.

While EIP-1153 promises to enhance efficiency and reduce gas costs, it has also raised concerns over potential risks. Critics argue that the fixed gas costs of TLOAD and TSTORE could make network attacks easier and cheaper. However, it is important to note that these opcodes do not refund gas but consume a fixed amount, a design choice intended to prevent abuse. The proposal requires a hard fork but ensures backward compatibility with existing contracts, indicating careful consideration for the network’s stability and the developer’s experience. Concerns about the potential for misuse, such as reentrancy bugs, and the increase in complexity for static analysis, manual code auditing, and formal verification have been raised. These reflect the broader implications for smart contract security and reliability, emphasizing the importance of community consensus and careful implementation.

3. EIP-4788: The Bridge Builder

Ethereum Improvement Proposal 4788, or EIP-4788, stands as a transformative element within the Dencun upgrade, aiming to fortify the symbiosis between Ethereum’s execution and consensus layers. This proposal, colloquially known as “The Bridge Builder,” is anticipated to have profound implications for the efficiency and security of applications that are dependent on Ethereum’s consensus state. The following points elucidate the technicalities and benefits of EIP-4788:

  • Beacon Block Root Integration:
    • EIP-4788 proposes the integration of a “Beacon Block Root” into each Ethereum Virtual Machine block. This integration is a critical step in enhancing the connection between the EVM and the beacon chain, facilitating real-time, accurate updates from the consensus layer directly within the EVM.
    • The proposal embeds the parent beacon block root directly into each execution block, effectively transforming the EVM into an oracle and providing trust-minimized access to Ethereum’s consensus state.
  • Smart Contract Access to Consensus State:
    • By introducing a beacon block root-containing contract, smart contracts can now query Ethereum’s consensus state in a trust-minimized manner. This is achieved by utilizing a ring buffer to store consensus state roots efficiently.
    • The implementation of EIP-4788 enhances the communication between Ethereum’s execution and consensus layers, potentially transforming user applications by making Ethereum’s consensus state accessible in a cryptographically verifiable manner.
  • Impact on Liquid Staking and Re-staking Applications:
    • Protocols such as Lido and Rocket Pool can leverage EIP-4788 to improve capital efficiency and simplify the tracking of staking rewards without relying on a small number of Oracle node providers.
    • The proposal eliminates the need for trusted oracle solutions to gain information about Ethereum’s consensus state, thus enhancing the security, trustworthiness, and efficiency of liquid staking pools and re-staking applications.

The implementation of EIP-4788 is a testament to the Dencun upgrade’s commitment to reducing complexity and bolstering the security of Ethereum’s liquid staking and smart contract ecosystems. It represents a significant step towards enabling direct access to consensus layer data, which is pivotal for the evolution of the Ethereum network and its applications. The proposal has garnered positive feedback from key stakeholders in the Ethereum ecosystem, highlighting its potential to significantly improve application logic and security for protocols like Lido. As part of the broader Dencun upgrade, EIP-4788 is set to revolutionize the way information travels within Ethereum, particularly improving the connection between its execution and consensus layers.

4. EIP-4844: The Luggage Carrier

Ethereum Improvement Proposal 4844 (EIP-4844), aptly dubbed “The Luggage Carrier,” is a pivotal element of the Dencun upgrade that seeks to alleviate the load on Layer 2 transactions. This proposal introduces the innovative concept of blob transactions, which could potentially render blob inscriptions a feasible alternative to traditional roll-up platforms. The essence of EIP-4844 lies in its introduction of a novel block data structure known as Blob, explicitly designed for encapsulating Layer 2 transaction data. This structure is instrumental in significantly diminishing storage costs and slashing Layer 2 gas fees, thereby enhancing the scalability and efficiency of the Ethereum network.

Key technicalities of EIP-4844:

  • Blob Transactions: EIP-4844’s blobs are large chunks of data that are temporarily included in Ethereum blocks, providing a cost-efficient method for storing transaction data off-chain. Blobs are designed to be ephemeral, existing only for short durations, which contributes to the reduction of the storage burden on nodes and makes Ethereum more scalable by efficiently managing large volumes of data.
  • Impact on Layer 2 Rollups: The introduction of blobs is anticipated to reduce costs for Layer 2 rollups by up to 90%, a significant boon for both optimistic and zero-knowledge rollups. By partitioning the network into shards for independent processing and utilizing blobs to compress transaction data off-chain, proto-danksharding within EIP-4844 is set to enhance transaction speed and decrease transaction fees.
  • Scalability and Efficiency: As part of the broader Dencun upgrade, proto-danksharding in EIP-4844 marks a significant stride towards Ethereum’s vision of a scalable and user-friendly blockchain. The proposal is currently being tested on testnets, with a planned live implementation on the Ethereum Mainnet as part of the Deneb + Cancun upgrade in March 2024.

The technical advancements proposed by EIP-4844 are not only poised to revolutionize the Ethereum landscape in terms of scalability and transaction efficiency but also signify a substantial reduction in the costs associated with Layer 2 transactions. By leveraging blob transactions, Ethereum is on the cusp of offering a more economical and scalable platform for developers and users, reinforcing its position as a leading blockchain for decentralized finance and smart contracts.

In line with the Dencun upgrade’s roadmap, the Ethereum community has witnessed the activation of proto-danksharding (EIP-4844) on the Goerli testnet, with subsequent implementations scheduled for additional testnets leading up to the mainnet launch. This meticulous approach underscores Ethereum’s commitment to thorough testing and community consensus, ensuring that each upgrade aligns with the long-term vision of a robust, efficient, and competitive ecosystem.

The implementation of proto-danksharding through EIP-4844 is a testament to Ethereum’s ongoing innovation, as it continues to push the boundaries of what is possible within the blockchain space. As the upgrade progresses, it is expected to have a transformative impact on the ether price, the vitality of crypto exchanges, and the broader cryptocurrency community, further cementing Ethereum’s status as an indispensable pillar of the Web3 revolution.

5. EIP-6780: The Code Keeper

Ethereum Improvement Proposal 6780 (EIP-6780), referred to as “The Code Keeper,” proposes a significant modification to the SELFDESTRUCT opcode within the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). The proposed changes are designed to enhance the security of the Ethereum network by limiting the functionality of SELFDESTRUCT, which has been identified as a vector for potential malicious activity. The key points of EIP-6780 are as follows:

  • Modified SELFDESTRUCT Functionality:
    • The SELFDESTRUCT opcode will no longer delete the contract account; instead, it will only transfer the Ether balance to the specified target.
    • This modification is crucial in preventing attackers from using SELFDESTRUCT to execute harmful exploits within the Ethereum ecosystem.
  • Exception for Contract Creation Transactions:
    • A notable exception exists when SELFDESTRUCT is invoked during the same transaction in which the contract is created. In this scenario, the opcode retains its original functionality, allowing developers to continue using SELFDESTRUCT as a means to limit interactions with a contract to specific parties.
  • Preservation of Existing Contracts:
    • Contracts that were created prior to the implementation of EIP-6780 will not be affected by these changes. Such contracts can still self-destruct and transfer their Ethereum as originally intended, ensuring minimal disruption to the current operations within the Ethereum network.
  • Dependencies and Cancun-Candidate Status:
    • EIP-6780’s implementation relies on the successful integration of EIP-2681, EIP-2929, and EIP-3529, which collectively address gas costs, state size management, and other security concerns.
    • As a candidate, EIP-6780 is currently under discussion within the Ethereum community, particularly in the Ethereum Magicians forum, where its merits and potential impact are being rigorously evaluated.

The introduction of EIP-6780 aligns with Ethereum’s roadmap towards a more secure and efficient blockchain. It reflects the community’s proactive approach to addressing vulnerabilities and optimizing the network’s performance. As the Ethereum ecosystem continues to evolve, proposals like EIP-6780 are instrumental in reinforcing the network’s resilience against threats while maintaining the integrity of smart contracts and the ether price in the volatile cryptocurrency market.

The discourse surrounding EIP-6780 is indicative of Ethereum’s commitment to a collaborative and transparent development process, ensuring that key stakeholders are involved in shaping the future of the eutherium and the broader Web3 landscape. As discussions progress, the implications of EIP-6780 for developers, users, and the entire blockchain ecosystem remain a focal point of interest within the cryptocurrency community.

6. EIP-5656: The Data Dynamo

Ethereum Improvement Proposal 5656, or EIP-5656, introduces a crucial enhancement to the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) with the introduction of a new instruction known as MCOPY. This instruction is poised to play a significant role in the optimization of smart contract execution within the Eutherium network. Here are the key aspects of EIP-5656:

  • MCOPY Instruction: The MCOPY opcode is designed to improve the performance of memory copying operations, which are fundamental to building data structures in smart contracts. By streamlining the process of copying data in memory, MCOPY aims to optimize smart contract interactions and reduce gas costs, contributing to a more efficient blockchain ecosystem.
  • Gas Cost Reduction: The introduction of the MCOPY instruction is expected to have a direct impact on the gas costs associated with smart contract execution. By providing a more efficient means of memory copying, EIP-5656 could lead to a reduction in the amount of gas required for certain operations, thereby streamlining workflows and making the execution of smart contracts more cost-effective.
  • Optimization of Data Copying: The optimization of the data copying process is a technical advancement that underscores Ethereum’s commitment to continuous improvement. EIP-5656 (MCOPY Opcode) specifically targets the enhancement of this aspect of smart contract execution, which is essential for the creation of complex data structures and the efficient functioning of decentralized applications on the network.

The implementation of EIP-5656 is a reflection of Ethereum’s roadmap toward a more scalable and user-friendly blockchain. As part of the Dencun upgrade, this proposal exemplifies the network’s dedication to fostering an environment where developers can create innovative solutions with reduced operational costs. The MCOPY opcode is a strategic addition to the EVM’s instruction set, which is expected to contribute significantly to the overall performance and competitiveness of the Ethereum blockchain in the rapidly evolving Web3 space.

7. EIP-7044: The Exit Maestro

Ethereum Improvement Proposal 7044 (EIP-7044), an integral part of the Dencun upgrade, introduces a paradigm shift in the staking experience for Ethereum’s ecosystem. Titled “Perpetually Valid Signed Voluntary Exits,” EIP-7044 focuses on enhancing the flexibility and control for validators by simplifying the exit process from staking. Here are the key aspects of EIP-7044:

  • Indefinite Validity of Exit Messages:
    • EIP-7044 ensures that exit messages, once signed by validators, retain their validity indefinitely. This change is pivotal in simplifying the withdrawal process for validators, as it removes the need for continual message updates across future forks of the blockchain.
    • The permanent validity of these messages means that validators can prepare for exit without worrying about the timing of network upgrades or potential forks, providing a smoother transition when they choose to cease their staking activities.
  • Enhanced Validator Autonomy:
    • By allowing exit messages to remain valid across forks, EIP-7044 grants validators more control over their staking operations. This flexibility is crucial for ETH stakers and validator operators who seek to optimize their staking strategies without being constrained by network updates.
    • Validators can now make informed decisions about their participation in the consensus process, with the assurance that their exit plans are resilient to changes in the network’s protocol.
  • Streamlined Staking Process:
    • Together with EIP-7045, which extends the attestation inclusion time, EIP-7044 is instrumental in facilitating a more user-friendly and flexible staking process. These improvements are part of the broader Dencun upgrade that aims to bolster Ethereum’s scalability, security, and usability.
    • The modifications brought forth by these proposals are expected to attract more participants to Ethereum’s staking mechanism, thereby enhancing the network’s decentralization and security.

EIP-7044 represents a significant step forward in Ethereum’s ongoing evolution, reflecting the network’s commitment to providing a robust and adaptable staking framework. As Ethereum continues to navigate the complex landscape of blockchain technology, proposals like EIP-7044 play a critical role in maintaining the network’s position as a leading platform for decentralized finance and smart contracts. With the implementation of EIP-7044, Ethereum solidifies its roadmap towards a more scalable, secure, and user-centric blockchain, furthering its vision for a decentralized and efficient Web3 ecosystem.

Background of Ethereum Scalability Issues

Ethereum’s scalability has long been a subject of discussion within the cryptocurrency community. The network’s initial proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism, while foundational, presented considerable challenges:

  • Proof-of-Work Limitations: The PoW mechanism required all transactions to be broadcast across the network for verification in every block. This process increased block size and, paradoxically, promoted centralization, contrary to the ethos of decentralized blockchain technology. The necessity for every miner to maintain a copy of the entire chain contributed to significant scalability issues.
  • Network Congestion and Increased Fees: In 2017, the Ethereum network experienced severe congestion, primarily during the Initial Coin Offering (ICO) craze, which led to a surge in transaction fees. This period highlighted the network’s limitations, as it struggled to process a high volume of transactions efficiently. The popular dApp CryptoKitties further compounded these issues by causing an unprecedented surge in transactions, resulting in even higher network fees and longer confirmation times.
  • Miner Transaction Prioritization: As the network became overloaded, miners began prioritizing transactions with higher gas costs. This situation created a competitive environment where users were forced to increase their transaction fees to ensure timely processing, leading to a spike in the cost of network fees.

The transition to a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus mechanism is Ethereum’s strategic response to these scalability challenges.

  • Proof-of-Stake Advantages: The shift to PoS is anticipated to enhance network efficiency and security. Validators in a PoS system are not required to maintain a copy of the entire chain; instead, they only need to manage the state of transactions on the chain. This adjustment significantly increases transaction throughput and reduces the potential for bad actors, as validating nodes must stake a certain amount of ETH in a smart contract to participate. The PoS mechanism is also more energy-efficient, which aligns with the growing concern for sustainable blockchain solutions.
  • Enhanced Transaction Throughput: With the implementation of PoS, the network’s transaction throughput is expected to improve, as validators can process transactions more quickly without the computational burden of PoW. This change is pivotal for Ethereum’s ambition to become a more scalable and user-friendly platform capable of supporting a diverse range of decentralised applications and services within the eithereum ecosystem.

As Ethereum continues to evolve, addressing scalability is crucial for maintaining its position as a leading blockchain for decentralized finance, smart contracts, and the burgeoning Web3 space. The Dencun upgrade, with its focus on proto-danksharding and various Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs), represents a significant step forward in this ongoing journey.

The Technical Aspects of the Dencun Upgrade

The Dencun upgrade represents a monumental shift in the Ethereum landscape, driven by a series of technical enhancements designed to optimise the network’s scalability, efficiency, and security. Central to this upgrade is the implementation of proto-danksharding, which is expected to significantly increase Ethereum’s transaction processing capacity, potentially handling more than 100,000 transactions per second. This is achieved through the introduction of blob-carrying transactions, which serve to compress data and reduce fees associated with Layer 2 rollups.

Key Technical Aspects of the Dencun Upgrade:

  • Proto-Danksharding with Blob Transactions: Proto-danksharding introduces blob transactions to the Ethereum network, which are designed to store large packets of data temporarily, thereby reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of Layer 2 transactions. This innovative approach is anticipated to slash fees and enhance transaction processing by effectively managing the data within the network.
  • Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs):The upgrade includes several pivotal EIPs, each addressing specific network functionalities:
  • Scalability and Efficiency Enhancements: The Dencun upgrade is poised to alleviate network congestion and bring scalability improvements through proto-danksharding, optimizing data storage, making gas prices more predictable, and paving the way for future on-chain scaling solutions like sharding. These enhancements are expected to increase the data submission capacity for Layer-2 solutions, improving network scalability.
  • EIP-7514 (The Gatekeeper): Modulates the growth of Ethereum’s active validator set to enhance network efficiency.
  • EIP-1153 (The Memory Magician): Introduces Transient Storage, offering a temporary space for data that disappears post-transaction.
  • EIP-4788 (The Bridge Builder): Aims to fortify the symbiosis between Ethereum’s execution and consensus layers.
  • EIP-4844 (The Luggage Carrier): Aims to alleviate the load on Layer 2 transactions through the introduction of blob transactions.
  • EIP-5656 (The Data Dynamo): Introduces the MCOPY instruction to optimize smart contract execution.
  • EIP-6780 (The Code Keeper): Proposes modifications to the SELFDESTRUCT opcode to enhance network security.
  • EIP-7044 (The Exit Maestro): Simplifies the exit process from staking by ensuring indefinite validity of exit messages.

By integrating advancements from both the Cancun and Deneb upgrades on the execution and consensus layers, the Dencun upgrade targets scalability from multiple angles. It is scheduled for deployment on March 13, 2024, and includes key EIPs like EIP-1153, EIP-4788, EIP-4844 (Proto-Danksharding), and others, all aiming to enhance scalability, efficiency, and security. The successful deployment on the Holesky testnet, followed by the mainnet launch,, marks a critical milestone in Ethereum’s journey towards becoming a more scalable, efficient, and user-friendly platform.

The Dencun upgrade is not a panacea for Ethereum’s capacity issues, but it lays the groundwork for multi-chain solutions on the Ethereum network, such as rollups and appchains. These solutions can achieve a synergistic effect, combining the transaction efficiency of rollups with the flexibility and customization of appchains, thus addressing one part of the “Blockchain Trilemma.”

See appendix -3 for bibliography of this section of article 

Impact on Developers and Users

The Dencun upgrade is poised to usher in a new era of efficiency and scalability for developers and users within the Ethereum ecosystem. Here are the specific impacts:

  • Reduction in Layer 2 Transaction Fees: Developers and users of Layer 2 solutions like Arbitrum, which is renowned for its high transaction volume, are likely to see a substantial reduction in fees. The upgrade is projected to reduce total transaction fees on Layer 2 protocols by 10x or more, making Ethereum’s Layer 2 solutions more economical and likely accelerating their adoption.
  • Increased Throughput: The upgrade promises to boost throughput, which benefits high-volume sectors such as gaming, NFTs, and derivatives. By alleviating transaction throughput bottlenecks, the Dencun upgrade could lead to a surge in Ethereum usage for various applications, potentially driving Ether prices higher.
  • Demand for Decentralized Storage: There will be an increased demand for decentralized storage solutions, benefiting projects like Filecoin, Arweave, and Storj. This is due to the upgrade’s focus on data availability layers, which are crucial for the storage and retrieval of data across decentralized platforms.

The Dencun upgrade also entails:

  • Security Enhancements for Staking Protocols: Staking protocols, particularly for liquid staking derivatives (LSD) and restaking sectors, will experience bolstered security measures. This enhancement is crucial for maintaining user confidence in the security and integrity of staked assets.
  • Accessibility and Affordability for NFT Creators: Reduced gas fees from the Dencun upgrade will make NFT minting and trading more accessible and affordable. This could lead to increased user and project creator engagement in Web3 spaces, fostering a more vibrant and diverse ecosystem.

However, developers are advised to proceed with caution, as the introduction of new consensus mechanisms and architectural changes could bring unforeseen complexities and operational hurdles. Despite these potential challenges, the successful deployment of Dencun could enhance investor confidence in Ethereum’s long-term viability and its development team’s ability to execute complex upgrades, potentially attracting more developers and users to the Ethereum ecosystem.

In summary, the Dencun upgrade represents a significant milestone that could fundamentally transform nearly every aspect of the network, from performance and scalability to access and applications. It is a watershed moment in Ethereum’s history, with the potential to solidify its position as a leading blockchain for decentralized finance and smart contracts.

Future Steps: From Proto-Danksharding to Danksharding

Ethereum’s continuous evolution from proto-Danksharding to Danksharding reflects a steadfast commitment to elevating the blockchain’s scalability and efficiency. As the Dencun upgrade lays the groundwork with proto-danksharding, the path forward is charted towards full Danksharding, which promises to expand upon these initial improvements. Here are the anticipated steps in this evolutionary process:

  • Expansion of Data Blobs: Danksharding aims to scale Ethereum by increasing the number of data blobs attached to each block, allowing the network to support an impressive volume of more than 100,000 transactions per second. This expansion is a critical step in addressing Ethereum’s scalability challenges and ensuring the network can accommodate a growing user base and application ecosystem.
  • Implementation of Proposer-Builder Separation and Data Availability Sampling: A core component of Danksharding includes the implementation of proposer-builder separation, streamlining the process by which blocks are proposed and constructed. This separation is complemented by data availability sampling, a method that allows validators to efficiently and securely verify the availability of shard data without needing to process the entire shard. These technical enhancements are pivotal for maintaining the integrity and efficiency of the network as it scales.
  • Completion of the KZG Ceremony: The KZG Ceremony, an essential prerequisite for verifying the integrity of data blobs in Danksharding, has been successfully concluded with significant community participation. This collaborative effort underscores the Ethereum community’s role in supporting and validating the network’s advancements, paving the way for the transition to full Danksharding.
  • Ongoing Development and Testing: While full Danksharding remains several years away, development and testing are actively underway. The goal is to support hundreds of individual rollups, making millions of transactions per second a reality on Ethereum. This ambitious target is part of a broader vision to challenge the blockchain trilemma, striving for scalability without compromising on security or decentralization, as explained in a detailed analysis of danksharding and proto-danksharding.
  • Enhancing Ethereum’s Scalability: The transition from proto-Danksharding to Danksharding is expected to further enhance Ethereum’s scalability. By addressing the limitations of the current system, full Danksharding will enable the blockchain to handle an exponentially greater number of transactions, solidifying Ethereum’s position as a dominant player in the space of decentralized finance and smart contracts.

Ethereum’s roadmap towards Danksharding is not just a technical upgrade but a strategic move that reflects the platform’s dedication to fostering a scalable, efficient, and secure blockchain ecosystem. As the network evolves, it continues to attract developers and users alike, drawn by the promise of a more robust and capable infrastructure capable of driving the next generation of Web3 applications.

Potential Challenges and Criticisms

While the Dencun upgrade marks a significant advancement for the Ethereum network, it is not without its potential challenges and criticisms. The upgrade’s focus on proto-danksharding and its various Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) are designed to enhance scalability and efficiency. However, several challenges have been identified that could impact the upgrade’s success and reception within the etherium community:

  • Long-Term Scalability Concerns: Proto-danksharding is a step towards improving Ethereum’s scalability, yet it does not fully resolve the issue of network capacity. The upgrade primarily enhances data storage efficiency, which may not be sufficient to meet the long-term demands of the network’s growth and usage (Cointelegraph).
  • Multi-Chain Solution Challenges: The integration of appchains and rollups as multi-chain solutions on Ethereum introduces complexities such as managing interoperability and maintaining consistent security measures across different chains. These challenges could pose significant hurdles to achieving seamless cross-chain interactions (Cointelegraph).
  • Testnet Synchronization Issues: During testing on the Goerli testnet, the Dencun upgrade encountered client synchronization issues that risked a chain split. Such technical challenges underscore the importance of rigorous testing and readiness for unforeseen obstacles when implementing network upgrades (BSC News).
  • High Gas Fees and Competitive Landscape: Ethereum users have historically contended with high gas fees, and the Dencun upgrade’s ability to significantly lower these fees is yet to be validated, particularly when compared to competitors like Solana, which offer lower transaction costs. The success of the upgrade in reducing fees will be crucial for Ethereum’s competitiveness in the cryptocurrency market (Unchained Crypto).
  • Fragmentation and User Experience in Layer 2 Solutions: Despite the anticipated reduction in fees for Layer 2 solutions post-upgrade, challenges remain in addressing fragmentation and user experience. These issues could deter the adoption of Layer 2 platforms for smaller transactions, impacting the overall effectiveness of the upgrade in attracting a broader user base (Unchained Crypto).
  • Potential Bugs and Interoperability Issues: The Dencun upgrade aims to increase transaction throughput and reduce costs, especially for data-heavy workloads. However, it may face challenges such as bugs, unexpected demand surges, and interoperability issues, which could hinder the upgrade’s implementation and performance (CoinCodex).

In conclusion, while the Dencun upgrade is a significant step forward for Ethereum, addressing these potential challenges is crucial for its successful implementation and adoption. The upgrade’s extensive testing on testnets and the planned launch in March 2024 demonstrate a commitment to overcoming these obstacles, with the Ethereum community and developers working diligently to ensure a smooth transition and realization of the upgrade’s benefits (Lykke, CCN).

Impact on Scalability

The Dencun upgrade is set to be a transformative force for the Ethereum network, with scalability at the forefront of its benefits. This section delves into the technicalities of the upgrade, examining its impact on the network’s capacity to handle transactions and its wider implications for the Ethereum ecosystem.

  • Rollup Cost Reduction: One of the most significant impacts of the Dencun upgrade is the expected tenfold reduction in rollup transaction costs. This cost efficiency is contingent upon the demand for blob space, but the potential savings are substantial, making Layer 2 solutions like rollups more economically viable for users and developers alike. This development is particularly crucial as it could lead to an influx of new applications and use cases on Ethereum’s Layer 2, thus enhancing the overall utility and appeal of the eutherium network.
  • Enhanced Throughput and Efficiency:
    1. The Dencun upgrade, incorporating Ethereum Improvement Proposals such as EIP-5656, is set to significantly impact the ecosystem by increasing transactions per second (TPS), reducing transaction fees, and fostering growth in data availability and Layer 2 solutions. This trio of enhancements is pivotal to Ethereum’s scalability roadmap, aiming to achieve speeds of 100,000 TPS and potentially bring average transaction costs below $0.01, a target that could redefine the cryptocurrency landscape.
    2. By focusing on scalability and data availability, the upgrade is anticipated to substantially increase Ethereum’s throughput. This means that the network can handle a higher volume of transactions, which is essential for Ethereum’s utility as a platform for decentralized applications and services. The scalability improvements are a cornerstone of Ethereum’s commitment to fostering a robust, accessible, and sustainable blockchain ecosystem.
  • Innovation and continuous improvement:
    1. Ethereum’s Dencun upgrade is a vivid demonstration of the network’s dedication to innovation and continuous improvement. By integrating features like proto-danksharding and blob-carrying transactions, Ethereum is not only enhancing scalability but also reducing costs and improving data availability. These advancements mark a pivotal step towards achieving greater scalability, efficiency, and security for Ethereum, reinforcing its position as a leading blockchain platform for smart contracts and decentralized applications.

In summary, the Dencun upgrade’s focus on scalability is poised to bring about a paradigm shift in the Ethereum network’s capacity to handle transactions, making it a more attractive platform for developers, builders, and investors. By boosting transaction efficiency and cutting costs, Ethereum is charting a course towards a future where it can support a vast ecosystem of decentralized applications and services, further cementing its role as a foundational pillar of the Web3 revolution.

Benefits for Layer-2 Solutions

The Dencun upgrade, set for March 13, 2024, is a significant leap forward for Ethereum, notably enhancing the scalability and cost-efficiency of Layer-2 solutions. This upgrade is particularly beneficial for rollups, specialized Layer-2 platforms that process transactions off the main Ethereum network to increase speed and lower costs. Below are the key benefits that Layer-2 solutions will reap from the Dencun upgrade:

  • Substantial Reduction in Gas Fees: Rollups and other Layer-2 platforms are expected to experience a dramatic reduction in transaction fees as the Dencun upgrade introduces mechanisms to optimize data storage and processing costs. This reduction is critical to making these platforms more accessible and affordable for users, potentially driving widespread adoption and bolstering the ether price in the process.
  • Increased Scalability for Layer-2 Platforms: The upgrade is projected to significantly boost the number of transactions that can be processed on Layer-2 solutions. Platforms like Polygon (MATIC), Arbitrum, Optimism, COTI Network, Mantle, and Metis stand to benefit the most, as they are at the forefront of leveraging Ethereum’s Layer-2 capabilities. This scalability enhancement will fortify these platforms’ capabilities, enabling them to handle a higher volume of transactions and attract a broader user base within the Eutherium ecosystem.
  • Strengthening Ethereum’s Leadership in Smart Contracts: By advancing Ethereum’s scalability and efficiency, the Dencun upgrade aims to solidify the blockchain’s leadership in the smart contract platform space. The technical improvements brought about by the upgrade will not only enhance the performance of existing Layer-2 solutions but also pave the way for the development of new and innovative platforms that can leverage Ethereum’s strengthened network capabilities.

The Dencun upgrade represents a strategic move by Ethereum to address the critical needs of its ecosystem, focusing on improving the user and developer experience on Layer-2 platforms. As the network continues to evolve, the upgrade is a testament to Ethereum’s commitment to maintaining its competitive edge in the blockchain and cryptocurrency landscapes, ensuring its roadmap aligns with the long-term vision of a scalable, efficient, and user-friendly platform.

See Appendix 3 for sources of the information presented in this section of article

Comparison with Previous Upgrades

The Dencun upgrade stands as a significant evolution within the Ethereum network, marking a pivotal transition from the previous upgrades. It is essential to compare it with its predecessors to understand the scope of its advancements.

Post-Merge Era

The Dencun upgrade is the first major enhancement following ‘The Merge,’ which transitioned Ethereum from a proof-of-work (PoW) to a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus mechanism. While ‘The Merge’ was focused on changing the fundamental consensus protocol to improve energy efficiency and security, Dencun is concentrated on optimizing data storage and processing efficiencies. This shift underscores Ethereum’s progression towards a more scalable and user-centric platform, as detailed by QuickNode and Altcoin Buzz.

The Surge Period

Situated within ‘The Surge’ period of Ethereum’s development roadmap, the Dencun upgrade is instrumental in revolutionizing the blockchain’s scalability, security, and user experience. Unlike previous upgrades, which often introduced singular features or improvements, Dencun integrates multiple Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) aimed at enhancing the overall performance and capacity of the network. This multifaceted approach is a strategic advancement in Ethereum’s roadmap towards fulfilling its long-term vision of a highly scalable and efficient ecosystem.

Comparison with Previous Upgrades

Prior upgrades, such as in Constantinople and Istanbul, introduced various EIPs that optimized opcode pricing, improved network security, and laid the groundwork for future scalability solutions. However, Dencun’s introduction of proto-danksharding is a leap forward in Ethereum’s scalability narrative. It not only improves transaction processing capacity but also sets the stage for the eventual implementation of full Danksharding. This strategic progression is detailed by ThirdWeb, emphasizing the upgrade’s role in Ethereum’s continuous improvement trajectory.

In summary, the Dencun upgrade is not merely an incremental update but a transformative development that builds upon the foundational changes introduced by ‘The Merge.’ It is a testament to Ethereum’s unwavering pursuit of innovation as it continues to enhance its blockchain infrastructure to meet the growing demands of the cryptocurrency and decentralized finance sectors. The upgrade’s focus on proto-danksharding and the technicalities of the Dencun upgrade, including the Ethereum proposals it encompasses, is a pivotal step in Ethereum’s journey towards becoming a more scalable, secure, and user-friendly platform.

Future of Ethereum Post-Dencun

The Dencun upgrade, with its emphasis on scalability and efficiency, is poised to propel the Ethereum network into a new phase of growth and innovation. As the network continues to mature post-upgrade, the implications for the price of Ether and the optimization of smart contract execution are two crucial areas of focus:

Ether Price Trajectory

Market analysts anticipate that if the Dencun upgrade meets or exceeds expectations, the price of Ether could potentially surpass the $5,000 mark by the end of the year. This price movement would be reflective of the upgrade’s success in enhancing the Ethereum network’s capabilities and solidifying its position as a leading blockchain for decentralized applications and finance. The upgrade’s impact on the ether price is expected to be significant, as it addresses key scalability issues that have historically constrained the network’s growth (CryptoNews).

Optimization of Smart Contract Execution:

The Ethereum 2024 Roadmap Update has shed light on the introduction of EIP-5656, which includes the MCOPY operation code. This code is a critical component of the efforts to optimize the process of copying data in memory during smart contract execution. By streamlining this process, EIP-5656 is expected to contribute to reducing gas fees and improving the overall performance of smart contracts on the network. The optimization of smart contract execution is a testament to Ethereum’s commitment to continuous improvement and innovation, addressing the evolving needs of developers and users within the Eutherium ecosystem (CoinLive).

The Dencun upgrade’s focus on proto-thrusting and the technicalities involved, including the Ethereum proposals mentioned, signal a strategic effort to enhance the Ethereum network’s scalability, efficiency, and user experience. The upgrade’s successful implementation is expected to have a ripple effect across the blockchain and cryptocurrency landscapes, influencing the development trajectory of Ethereum and its competitiveness in the market.


The Ethereum landscape stands on the brink of a transformative era with the Dencun upgrade, a strategic amalgamation of proto-danksharding and EIPs tailored to bolster the network’s scalability and efficiency. This upgrade is set to address the technical challenges of the past, laying a solid foundation for Ethereum’s future. It promises to enhance Layer-2 solutions, significantly reduce gas fees, and accelerate Ethereum’s throughput, potentially benefiting Ethereum’s valuation and solidifying its position as a front-runner in the blockchain arena.

The Dencun upgrade is not an endpoint but a milestone on the ongoing path of innovation. As Ethereum continues to evolve, stakeholder anticipation is palpable, with the network’s advancing capabilities expected to unlock new possibilities across the decentralized landscape. For those eager to explore Ethereum’s latest advancements, detailed insights and proposals can be found in the comprehensive bibliography provided, underscoring a commitment to a more scalable, efficient, and user-centric blockchain future.


What is the Ethereum Dencun Upgrade?

The Dencun Upgrade, sometimes referred to as Cancun-Deneb, is a significant update to the Ethereum network that is anticipated to be launched in the first quarter of 2024. Its main goal is to enhance the network’s scalability and efficiency, and it plans to do so through the implementation of nine Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs).

Can you explain what Dencun refers to in the context of Ethereum?

Dencun refers to the forthcoming Ethereum upgrade that is set to introduce proto-danksharding, known as EIP-4844. This upgrade is a part of Ethereum’s ongoing development roadmap and involves contributions from EIP authors, core developers, and Layer 2 (L2) operators. It is a significant step in the evolution of the Ethereum protocol, focusing on improving the network’s overall performance.

What is the latest protocol update for Ethereum?

The latest major protocol update for Ethereum is the shift from an energy-intensive proof-of-work (PoW) algorithm to a more energy-efficient proof-of-stake (PoS) algorithm, which is part of the Eth2 upgrade, now commonly referred to as the consensus layer upgrade. This transition is expected to bring numerous improvements to the network, including better scalability, enhanced security, and greater accessibility.

How does sharding work on Ethereum?

Sharding is a process used in the blockchain industry to divide a larger blockchain into smaller, more manageable parts called shards. For Ethereum, sharding is a planned strategy to significantly increase the network’s transaction capacity (throughput) and to facilitate its move towards a proof-of-stake-based consensus mechanism in the future. This will help make the network more efficient and scalable.

Sources and Bibliography: 

Appendix 1 

Bibliography for the “Future of Ethereum Post-Dencun” section:

Appendix -2

Appendix -3


All precautions were taken while doing research for this article by the author. But hash herald does not take any warranty of any kind for the accuracy of this article. As usual,, DYOR.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here