Celestia Blockchain : A powerful Modular Blockchain

Celestia blockchain, Crypto trading,Modular blockchain, Data avilability
celestia logo

The Celestia blockchain emerges as a pioneering force in the blockchain domain, renowned for its modular network architecture that enhances ease of use and security for individuals launching their own blockchains. As a data availability-centric modular network, Celestia scales efficiently with its user base, ensuring a smooth expansion path. Its distinctive advantage is its ability to enable the creation of custom blockchains without the need for a dedicated validator set, thus promoting a more inclusive and flexible blockchain ecosystem.

Within the dynamic realm of cryptocurrency, the Celestia blockchain is distinguished by its revolutionary blockchain framework. This guide delves into the intricacies of Celestia’s technology and its departure from traditional blockchain infrastructures. By analyzing its core mechanisms and evaluating its prospective influence on the crypto landscape, this article also forecasts Celestia’s future course amidst the vast array of blockchain applications.

Celestia Blockchain, Modular Blockchain, Data Avilability
celestia logo

What Makes Celestia Unique?

Celestia’s blockchain infrastructure is distinguished by its modular architecture, a departure from the traditional, monolithic systems exemplified by Bitcoin and Ethereum. This modular strategy focuses on enhancing scalability and customization by concentrating on distinct roles within the network, underscoring the uniqueness of Celestia’s technology.

  • The modular design of Celestia’s blockchain infrastructure sets it apart from monolithic blockchains that manage consensus, execution, and data availability collectively. Celestia’s focus on the Consensus and Data Availability layers enables developers to either refine existing functionalities or specialize in particular domains, leading to greater scalability and adaptability.
  • Celestia’s robust data availability (DA) framework is pivotal for enhancing the scalability of Layer 2 (L2) rollups. By integrating DAS technology and Namespaced Merkle Trees (NMTs), Celestia empowers light nodes to confirm data availability efficiently without the need to download full blocks. This innovative approach drastically cuts the data processing and storage requirements for nodes, boosting the network’s efficiency and scalability.
  • Celestia’s platform offers unparalleled customization and interoperability in blockchain deployment, allowing developers the freedom to utilize any virtual machine (VM) of their choice. This versatility transforms almost any VM into a sovereign blockchain as effortlessly as deploying a smart contract, providing a revolutionary advantage for developers eager to launch independent blockchains with reduced overhead.

Positioning itself as a pivotal force in the blockchain ecosystem, Celestia’s modular approach and focus on data availability are instrumental in fostering blockchain scalability and interoperability, especially within the Ethereum network. Its cutting-edge technology, coupled with strategic alliances like that with Polygon, cements its status as a leader in the modular blockchain arena.

The Scalability Trilemma in Blockchain

The Scalability Trilemma, a concept introduced by Ethereum’s co-founder Vitalik Buterin, underscores a formidable challenge in blockchain technology: the struggle to simultaneously achieve security, scalability, and decentralization. These three foundational elements are crucial for the robustness and performance of any blockchain network, and addressing blockchain scaling is central to overcoming this trilemma.

  • Security is the cornerstone of protecting the blockchain network from various types of cyber threats. It is generally fortified through sophisticated cryptography and consensus mechanisms such as Proof of Work (PoW), which are essential components of blockchain data integrity.
  • Decentralization eradicates the dependence on a central authority, fostering a system that is equitable, transparent, and impervious to censorship. This principle is the bedrock of decentralised networks, ensuring that power is distributed across a wide array of participants.
  • Scalability pertains to the network’s capability to handle a substantial volume of transactions efficiently. For instance, Bitcoin’s network can process about seven transactions per second, in stark contrast to centralized processors like Visa, which can handle roughly 24,000 TPS. This comparison underscores the blockchain scaling hurdles that many blockchain networks encounter.

Attaining scalability while preserving security and decentralization is an intricate endeavor. Augmenting the throughput of a blockchain network often necessitates a compromise with the other two pillars. For example, efforts to enhance blockchain scaling can inadvertently lead to diminished security or a reduction in decentralization.

To address these challenges, various solutions have been developed:

  • Layer-1 enhancements, a cornerstone of blockchain innovation, encompass modifications made directly on the blockchain. Notable examples include Bitcoin’s SegWit and Lightning Network, which are designed to bolster transaction throughput.
  • Layer-2 solutions, such as Ethereum’s Plasma and the Layer-2 rollups concept, function off-chain to mitigate the strain on the primary blockchain, thereby enhancing scalability and operational efficiency.
  • Sharding, a pivotal aspect of blockchain scaling, is deployed in Ethereum 2.0. It segments the network into smaller, more manageable units known as ‘shards’, enabling simultaneous transaction processing and a surge in overall throughput.

Celestia’s modular blockchain architecture tackles the Scalability Trilemma by decoupling execution from consensus. The integration of DAS technology and erasure coding significantly boosts scalability, allowing for a higher volume of transactions within the same period while upholding security and decentralization. Moreover, Celestia leverages off-chain data availability solutions, including DACs and protocols, to alleviate the storage demands on nodes, favoring trusted off-chain storage options.

In the realm of blockchain innovation, Celestia’s approach to scalability sets it apart from leading blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum. By segregating layers and pioneering mechanisms such as fraud and validity proofs, Celestia aims to scale efficiently, circumventing the typical compromises and offering a robust solution to the persistent Scalability Trilemma in blockchain technology.

Data Availability and Its Importance

In the realm of blockchain technology, data availability is a critical pillar, ensuring that every node in the network has access to transaction data, which is vital for upholding the blockchain’s integrity and trust. Celestia underscores the importance of blockchain data availability, recognizing it as a key factor in its blockchain’s functionality named as :

  • Independent Verification: Network participants in decentralised networks can independently verify the blockchain’s dataset, a cornerstone of the trustless ethos inherent in blockchain technology.
  • Decentralization: By preventing the centralization of control, blockchain technology facilitates decentralisation, ensuring that no single entity can monopolize or manipulate the data.
  • Security: The robust security of blockchain data is bolstered by a network of nodes that work collaboratively to detect and correct any discrepancies, thereby upholding the blockchain’s reliability.

Data availability, a critical component for the reliable execution of smart contracts and the seamless operation of decentralised applications (DApps), is tightly interwoven with consensus mechanisms like Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS). In blockchain networks that support Ethereum and layer 2 solutions, it is indispensable for transaction verification. Celestia’s innovative approach to blockchain data availability includes several groundbreaking solutions:

  • Data Availability Sampling (DAS): DAS technology empowers light nodes to confirm data availability without the need to download entire blocks, thereby enhancing the network’s scalability and efficiency.
  • Namespaced Merkle Trees (NMTs): NMTs allow applications to selectively download only the blockchain data they require, further amplifying Celestia’s scalability and operational efficiency.

Comparing Celestia with other solutions

When comparing Celestia chain to other major blockchains, its’ unique modular architecture and its emphasis on data availability distinguish its blockchain infrastructure. For example:

  • Ethereum and Solana often encounter bottlenecks due to the need for validators to process extensive data, a challenge that blockchain scaling solutions aim to overcome. Celestia’s light nodes leverage Data Availability Sampling (DAS) to efficiently confirm data availability, requiring minimal computational resources. This innovation supports the handling of larger data blocks and boosts transaction volumes, facilitating the network’s growth while addressing blockchain scaling issues [19][27].
  • Layer-2 rollups are revolutionized by Celestia’s enhancements in scalability and security, thanks to pioneering technologies like DAS and Decentralized Availability Checks (DACs). These innovations solve the data availability conundrum, enabling Layer-2 solutions to operate without the necessity for nodes to download all data, thereby improving the overall efficiency of the network [25].
  • Sovereign rollups on Celestia chain present a novel approach to blockchain scaling by broadcasting transactions to an alternative blockchain for ordering and data availability. They manage their own settlement, inheriting critical security features such as liveness, safety, and resistance to re-organizations and censorship from the Data Availability (DA) layer, thus enhancing the robustness of the blockchain infrastructure [28][30].

Celestia’s data availability layer is pivotal in ensuring that blockchain data is readily accessible and reconstructible by any node, an essential aspect for preserving a decentralized and secure blockchain network [32]. This strategy sets Celestia apart from other major blockchains and cements its status as a scalable and adaptable platform for a multitude of blockchain applications.

Introducing Sovereign Rollups

Celestia Blockchain, Soverign Roll Ups
image from delphi digital

Sovereign rollups represent a cutting-edge method for blockchain scaling, tackling the fundamental challenges of scalability, speed, and cost that burden many layer-1 blockchains. By setting their own forking rules independently of the Data Availability/Consensus Layer, sovereign rollups grant developers unprecedented autonomy and flexibility within Celestia’s blockchain framework.

  • Blockchain innovation is exemplified by the autonomy in forking that sovereign rollups exhibit, allowing them to function independently from the data/consensus layer. This autonomy empowers them to set their own fork choice rules, a key factor in preserving the operational integrity and continuity of the rollup, even amidst changes in the underlying layers [29][33].
  • Enhanced blockchain performance is at the forefront of sovereign rollups’ design, which addresses the limitations of traditional layer-1 blockchains. By offering better scalability, quicker transaction throughput, and lower costs, sovereign rollups become a compelling choice for developers eager to craft more efficient and effective blockchain applications [34].
  • Sovereign Labs is pioneering the blockchain infrastructure with software that enables native connections between different rollups. This innovation is pivotal as it allows for fast, economical, and secure cross-rollup transactions, fostering a more interconnected and efficient ecosystem.
  • The Sovereign SDK is a complimentary, open-source toolkit tailored for the development of zk-rollups, integral to blockchain deployment. It’s designed to offer a uniform interface for rollups to seamlessly integrate with data availability layers, promoting a unified environment for diverse rollups to communicate and function in sync.

Comparing Celestia with other solutions

  • When it comes to blockchain scaling, traditional blockchains often hit a wall with transaction volume due to their single-layer structure. However, Sovereign rollups on Celestia redefine scalability and efficiency by setting their own rules and leveraging light nodes for swift data verification, enabling a higher transaction throughput.
  • The modular framework of Celestia’s design grants sovereign rollups exceptional customization and interoperability within the blockchain infrastructure. This modularity stands in stark contrast to the inflexibility of other major blockchains, where the execution and consensus layers are closely intertwined, limiting customization.
  • Sovereign rollups on Celestia bring a new level of cost-effectiveness to blockchain scaling by reducing the computational demands of transaction verification. This level of cost reduction is challenging to achieve in traditional blockchains, where the verification process often requires substantial resources.

In summary, Celestia’s sovereign rollups mark a transformative advancement in blockchain innovation, addressing critical challenges of scalability, speed, and cost in blockchain technology. They offer a distinctive blend of independence, performance enhancement, and developer-centric tools, setting the stage for a pivotal shift in blockchain evolution.

TIA token and its use case

Celestia Blockchain, Tia Token
tia token logo
  • Within Celestia’s network, the TIA token is a cornerstone, embodying multiple vital roles and contributing to the token utility and economics. Its functions are central to the network’s operations, underscoring the value of both TIA coin and Celestia token within the ecosystem.
    1. Transaction Fees: Users utilize tia coin to pay fees when publishing data to Celestia’s blobspace, a pivotal process that upholds the network’s data availability and integrity [36].
    2. Consensus Participation: By staking TIA tokens, users meet the necessary conditions to engage in the network’s consensus mechanism, enhancing its security and participating in governance mechanisms [36].
    3. Rollup Gas Fees: TIA coin is employed as a gas token for developers, streamlining the execution of smart contracts and operations within their rollups [36].
    4. Governance: Possession of TIA tokens endows users with governance rights, empowering them to partake in governance mechanisms by voting on network proposals and shaping Celestia’s future [37][16].

Tokenomics and Market Performance

The economic model of the TIA token is meticulously crafted to promote the long-term viability and stability of the Celestia network, with a focus on managing its total supply [11][38].

  1. Supply Cap and Inflation: The total supply of TIA tokens is strictly limited to a hard cap of 1 billion, coupled with an initial inflation rate of 8% that tapers off annually, orchestrating a controlled expansion of the token supply [11].
  2. Market Dynamics: The trading environment for TIA has been characterized by notable fluctuations since its inception, with its price peaking at $20.57 and hovering around $17.10, with market cap of 2.9 Billion USD, as of writing this article
  3. With a total supply of over 150 million tokens and a fully diluted valuation hitting the $17.1 billion mark, TIA’s market capitalization has soared beyond $2 billion. This impressive figure underscores the escalating interest and financial commitment in the Celestia network.

Community and Developer Ecosystem

Celestia’s community is a dynamic and robust collective, underpinned by an array of tools and platforms that serve the network’s users and developers. This developer ecosystem is a testament to the key components that make up the supportive and interactive environment within blockchain:

  • Wallet Integration:
    1. The community of TIA token users has access to a variety of secure wallets, including Keplr Wallet, Cosmostation, Leap, and Ledger. These wallets offer diverse asset management options and reinforce the strength of the Celestia ecosystem’s support structure.
    2. These wallets are integral to engaging with decentralized applications and are essential for enabling staking, which is a key component of participating in network consensus [36].
  • Developer Onboarding and Support:
    1. Newcomers can delve into a comprehensive ‘What is Celestia?’ introduction to get acquainted with the modular blockchain concept and understand its unique features [40].
    2. The dev portal of Celestia, complemented by extensive docs and GitHub repositories, provides developers with a comprehensive toolkit for building on the modular blockchain platform [40][1].
    3. Encouraging users to run a node not only bolsters the network’s robustness but also empowers developers to uphold the network’s integrity [40].
  • Community Engagement and Growth:
    1. Celestia’s strong community presence on social media platforms such as Twitter, Discord, GitHub, Telegram, Forum, and Reddit, cultivates a collaborative environment and offers multiple channels for support and community engagement [40].
    2. The airdrop program offers incentives designed to reward community members, featuring four distinct categories of rewards and clear eligibility criteria, fostering active participation and nurturing the network’s growth [12].
    3. Projects rooted in Celestia are initiating airdrops to communities within ecosystems such as Ethereum, Cosmos, Solana, and Celestia itself, showcasing a strategic cross-pollination of ecosystems and a dedication to expanding the network’s influence [41].
  • Partnerships and Ecosystem Expansion:
    1. Forging strategic partnerships with major platforms such as Polygon and StarkNet has not only amplified Celestia’s presence in the blockchain ecosystem but also highlighted its seamless interoperability with diverse blockchain infrastructures.
    2. Layer 2 solutions, including Hypr, Lyra Chain, and Nitrogen, are poised to integrate with Celestia for Data Availability, showcasing the versatile applications of Celestia’s technology within the blockchain ecosystem.
    3. Stakin, a prominent staking-as-a-service provider, has been entrusted as one of the validators on the Celestia Mainnet, underscoring the confidence in Celestia’s consensus mechanism and its potential for generating competitive staking yields.

Celestia’s blockchain infrastructure is marked by a robust commitment to modular architecture and data availability, setting it apart as a more flexible and scalable blockchain solution. This approach empowers developers to craft custom blockchains and ensures their secure deployment, propelling the crypto industry with groundbreaking innovation.

A Note On Security, Decentralization, and Scalability

  • Modular vs. Monolithic Architecture:
    • Monolithic blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum, which rely on a single-layered structure for all network functions, often encounter congestion and face challenges with blockchain scaling.
    • Celestia’s innovative modular blockchain design, which delineates data availability and consensus into separate layers, not only refines the blockchain infrastructure but also boosts network efficiency.
    • By segregating tasks, Celestia enhances transaction throughput, as full nodes need only to confirm data availability. This division contributes significantly to blockchain scaling, enabling larger block capacities.
  • Security and Decentralization:
    • Blockchain security in Celestia is fortified by its decentralized network of users who actively participate in verifying and enforcing the chain’s rules. Validators engaging in malicious behavior are swiftly detected and penalized, ensuring the integrity of the system.
    • The platform’s unwavering dedication to decentralised networks is exemplified by its permissionless Proof-of-Stake system. By leveraging the Cosmos SDK and Tendermint consensus, Celestia enhances network security and governance, reinforcing its decentralized ethos.
    • Celestia’s modular approach not only facilitates blockchain scaling but also provides a more resilient defense against attacks. This is achieved by distributing control and empowering a wider user base to directly verify the chain’s transactions and operations.
  • Scalability and Efficiency:
    • Addressing the critical need for blockchain scaling, Celestia sets itself apart by enabling light nodes to efficiently confirm data availability. This innovative method allows for the bypassing of entire block downloads, leading to significantly increased throughput.
    • Employing cutting-edge blockchain innovation, Celestia utilizes technologies such as fraud proofs, validity proofs, and data availability sampling. These advancements bolster the network’s ability to process transactions more efficiently without burdening nodes with increased verification costs.
    • Celestia’s blockchain infrastructure is uniquely designed to cater to sectors that demand high scalability and customization, like gaming and AI. Its departure from monolithic architectures allows for the provision of bespoke solutions that meet a variety of complex requirements.

Future Directions and Potential Impact

  • Celestia’s potential for growth is firmly rooted in the increasing need for blockchain scaling solutions. The platform’s cutting-edge technology, which ambitiously aims to boost block support from an initial 2MB to a staggering 1GB, represents a transformative stride in the realm of blockchain scalability. Furthermore, Celestia’s dedication to accommodating a variety of rollups from different blockchains is central to its economic model, promoting sustainability and cultivating a rich ecosystem. The distinct technology of Celestia, which decouples execution from consensus, allows for a modular strategy that stands in stark contrast to the monolithic frameworks of leading blockchains, highlighting its unparalleled ability to scale effectively without sacrificing security or decentralization.
  • Despite potential challenges from token unlocks and a competitive landscape, Celestia’s pioneering role in the modular blockchain space gives it a strategic market positioning for prospective long-term triumphs. The recent beta launch of the Celestia mainnet has further cemented its presence in the market. Nevertheless, the platform must adeptly maneuver through the evolving technological and regulatory environments that could shape its future. Celestia’s status as a top 50 cryptocurrency by market cap is a testament to its impressive price surge and the confidence it has garnered in the market.
  • Celestia’s strategic development is marked by the planned blockchain deployment of light nodes on smartphones, a move set to democratize access and engagement within the blockchain network. Moreover, the platform’s roadmap includes the pruning of historical transaction data to enhance storage and efficiency for its users. These forward-thinking advancements underscore Celestia’s unwavering commitment to refining its blockchain architecture and boosting the user experience and participation across its network.


An in-depth exploration of Celestia’s trailblazing technology reveals its capacity to revolutionize the blockchain infrastructure, providing answers to the scalability, security, and decentralization issues that often impede current networks. The modular design of Celestia stands as a testament to its potential for enabling greater scalability and more dependable data availability. This pioneering model ensures a network that is both adaptable and efficient, positioning Celestia as a powerful player in the competitive blockchain arena.

When juxtaposed with other leading blockchains, Celestia’s unique modular framework emerges with distinct advantages that could expedite the widespread adoption of blockchain technology in various industries. As the Celestia blockchain ecosystem continues to attract developers and enthusiasts, the platform is on track for significant growth. Engage with the future of blockchain through Celestia and delve into its dynamic community for unparalleled innovation opportunities in this avant-garde domain.


What is the underlying blockchain for Celestia?

Celestia operates on the Cosmos network. You can acquire TIA, the token associated with Celestia, on Cosmos-based decentralized exchanges (DEXs), including Osmosis and Helix.

How is Celestia utilized?

Celestia is a versatile platform that enables users to explore space at various speeds. It allows for the orbiting of stars, planets, moons, and other celestial bodies. Additionally, users can track spacecraft, asteroids, and comets in real-time as they pass by, or even venture into and navigate through galaxies.

Does Celestia qualify as a layer one blockchain?

Yes, Celestia is considered a simplified layer one blockchain. Its primary functions are to sequence transactions and ensure the availability of transaction data. Unlike other blockchains, it does not manage smart contracts or execute computational tasks.

Can Celestia be categorized as a layer two solution?

While Celestia itself is not a layer two solution, it offers a “data availability” service that presents a cost-effective alternative to data storage on Ethereum. This service is becoming a viable option for developers using Polygon’s adaptable software stack to create new layer two networks.

What is Celestia Crypto Price ( TIA)?

TIA token price is at 17.80 USD on 14th march, 2024 at the time of writing of this piece.

How to buy Celestia crypto ( TIA token)?

Celestia ( TIA) can be bought on all tier 1 exchange like Binance, okx, Mexc etc.

References and Bibliography

[1] – https://celestia.org/what-is-celestia/

[2] – https://twitter.com/CelestiaOrg

[3] – https://www.coinbase.com/cloud/discover/insights-analysis/celestia-an-introduction-to-modular-blockchains

[4] – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A5oL4_hPteA

[5] – https://medium.com/@danny_67840/celestia-welcome-to-the-new-era-of-modular-blockchain-tech-b4be245fa2fb

[6] – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n60G98w0V8M

[7] – https://blog.thirdweb.com/data-availability-blockchain/

[8] – https://www.theblock.co/learn/249536/what-is-the-blockchain-trilemma

[9] – https://www.gemini.com/cryptopedia/blockchain-trilemma-decentralization-scalability-definition

[10] – https://www.bitstamp.net/learn/blockchain/what-is-the-blockchain-trilemma/

[11] – https://www.techopedia.com/what-is-celestia-token

[12] – https://medium.com/@EagleEyeWeb3/unveiling-celestia-a-prelude-to-a-modular-blockchain-ecosystem-and-its-token-dynamics-f04e2d2ac7e5

[13] – https://glarity.app/youtube-summary/science-technology/celestia-tia-crypto-explained-simply-for-11224250_1344543

[14] – https://www.bankless.com/the-bankless-guide-to-celestia

[15] – https://medium.com/stakin/what-is-celestia-a-comprehensive-overview-of-the-first-modular-blockchain-c02db079b760

[16] – https://cryptopragmatist.com/p/comprehensive-guide-to-celestia-cryptocurrency-blockchain

[17] – https://medium.com/@limitlessinsights/celestia-what-is-tia-about-crypto-simplified-c938e6653197

[18] – https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/celestia-modular-approach-blockchain-scalability-antiersolutions-dacic?trk=public_post_main-feed-card_feed-article-content

[19] – https://blog.stakin.com/what-is-celestia-a-comprehensive-overview-of-the-first-modular-blockchain/

[20] – https://medium.com/@v.savitskii/celestia-blockchain-data-availability-and-scalability-1b1d59692bd2

[21] – https://www.bitcoinsuisse.com/learn/what-is-celestia

[22] – https://medium.com/intotheblock/why-celestia-is-a-blockchain-you-should-know-about-part-i-e080a7b30692

[23] – https://www.coindesk.com/tech/2023/07/12/what-is-ethereums-data-availability-problem-and-why-does-it-matter/

[24] – https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/what-is-data-availability

[25] – https://www.datawallet.com/crypto/what-is-data-availability

[26] – https://medium.com/@ampbura/investing-in-the-future-the-case-for-celestia-and-modular-blockchains-74beb57cb67c

[27] – https://tammy.ai/technology/blockchain-technology/unlocking-the-potential-of-celestia

[28] – https://celestia.org/learn/sovereign-rollups/an-introduction/

[29] – https://thepaymentsassociation.org/article/sovereign-rollups-why-do-you-need-it/

[30] – https://celestia.org/learn/sovereign-rollups/misconceptions/

[31] – https://www.sovereign.xyz/

[32] – https://coinpaper.com/3074/celestia-blockchain-unveiling-a-new-era-of-modular-chains

[33] – https://mirror.xyz/adeets.eth/6lkFmKIB3KeaNYgISyhRsd2RzK06CGHmhfEdeeAScpg

[34] – https://blockworks.co/news/sovereign-rollups-blockchain-scaling

[35] – https://www.sovereign.xyz/learn

[36] – https://celestia.org/what-is-tia/

[37] – https://academy.youngplatform.com/en/cryptocurrencies/tia-celestia-what-is-and-how-does-it-work/

[38] – https://www.coindesk.com/business/2023/12/12/blockchain-data-solution-celestias-tia-token-surges-as-polygon-deal-announced/

[39] – https://cryptoticker.io/en/what-is-celestia-crypto-tia/

[40] – https://celestia.org/

[41] – https://www.coinlive.com/news/celestia-ecosystem-a-new-era-of-decentralized-opportunities

[42] – https://helalabs.com/blog/whats-the-next-celestia-trends-and-possibilities-in-blockchain/

[43] – https://ottovw.medium.com/revolutionizing-the-blockchain-celestia-vs-30855f0373ed

[44] – https://celestia.org/learn/first-principles/modular-blockchains-and-first-principles/[45] – https://chorus.one/articles/understanding-celestia-in-10-questions

Disclaimer : A lot of effort was put into this article checking the factual accuracy of what is presented. TO be really honest, we have out the whole list of references for transparency. we provide no claim of factual accuracy of data presented here, please do your own research. For more info check Hash Herald


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here